Lungs do not get directly affected in diabetes. However patient may have associated lung problems due to smoking, lung/throat infections, bronchitis and COPD .hence PFT for lung function evaluation is important
Diabetics develop increased cholesterol in blood .This leads to blockages in arteries throughout the body including the arms and legs resulting in peripheral vasculardisease (PVD). This test helps in assessing the extent of blocks in the peripheral arteries. This aids in therapy of the patient.
Nerve damage is a prominent complication of diabetes. Nerve damage can occur even before the onset of overt diabetes .The nerves in legs and arms are affected called peripheral neuropathy .This can be tested and extent of peripheral nerve damage can be evaluated. and appropriate therapy can be instituted.
An important complication of diabetes occurs in the eye it retinal damage. This is called diabetic retinopathy. This is assessed with a fundoscope and extent of retinopathy can be assessed .This can lead to prevention of blindness. A leading cause of blindness in elderly is due to diabetic retinopathy